What is Blepharospasm?

Defining the term ‘Blepharospasm’


Epidemiology and Statistics of blepharospasm

Historical Trivia about Blepharospasm

Types of Blepharospasm

Etiologically, blepharospasm occurs in two forms:

  1. Essential or spontaneous blepharospasm is a rare focal dystonia without any known cause and affects individuals between 45 and 65 years of age. Although idiopathic in nature, essential blepharospasm is commonly associated with stress, fatigue or an irritant. The symptoms might possibly be benign and transient or might cause significant lifelong challenges to the individual and even cause functional blindness in those rare cases.
  2. Reflex blepharospasm is due to reflex sensory stimulation through branches of the Trigeminal nerve and is common in conditions like phlyctenular conjunctivitis, interstitial keratitis, corneal foreign body, corneal ulcers and iridocyclitis. Excessive stimulation of the retina by dazzling light, stimulation of facial nerve due to central causes, and some hysterical patients also present with reflex blepharospasm. It is due to any pain in and around the eye.

Pathophysiology of Blepharospasm

Clinical Presentation of Blepharopasm

Following anatomic changes are seen with long-standing blepharospasm:

Differential Diagnosis of Blepharospasm